Precon PlusTM is the first of new class of antihypertensive combination. Angiotensin II (formed from angiotensin I in a reaction catalyzed by angiotensin converting enzyme) is a potent vasoconstrictor, the primary vasoactive hormone of the renin-angiotensin system and an important component in the pathophysiology of hypertension. It also stimulates aldosterone secretion by the adrenal cortex. Losartan and its principle active metabolite block the vasoconstrictor and aldosterone secreting effects of angiotensin II by selectively blocking the binding of angiotensin II to the AT1 receptor found in many tissues, (e.g. vascular smooth muscle, adrenal gland). In vitro binding studies indicate that Losartan is a reversible, competitive inhibitor of the AT1 receptor. Neither Losartan nor its active metabolite inhibits ACE (kinase II, the enzyme that converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II and degrades bradykinin); nor do they bind to or block other hormone receptors or ion channels known to be important in cardiovascular regulation. Hydrochlorothiazide is a thiazide diuretic. Thiazides affect the renal tubular mechanisms of electrolyte reabsorption, directly increasing excretion of sodium and chloride in approximately equivalent amounts. Indirectly, the diuretic action of hydrochlorothiazide reduces plasma volume, with consequent increase in plasma renin activity, in aldosterone secretion, in urinary potassium loss and decreases in serum potassium. The renin-aldosterone link is mediated by angiotensin II, so co-administration of an angiotensin II receptor antagonist tends to reverse the potassium loss associated with these diuretics.
Precon PlusTM 50/12.5 Tablet: Each film-coated tablet contains Losartan Potassium BP 50 mg & Hydrochlorothiazide BP 12.5 mg.
Losartan Potassium: Hypertension, diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus, usually 50 mg once daily (intravascular volume depletion, initially 25 mg once daily); if necessary increased after several weeks to 100 mg once daily; elderly over 75 years initially 25 mg daily. Chronic heart failure, initially 12.5 mg once daily, increased at weekly intervals to max. 150 mg once daily if tolerated. Hydrochlorothiazide: It is effective in doses of 12.5 to 50 mg once daily and can also be given at doses 12.5 to 25 mg as Precon PlusTM.
Side-effects are usually mild. Symptomatic hypotension including dizziness may occur, particularly in patients with intravascular volume depletion (e.g. those taking high-dose diuretics). Hyperkalaemia occurs occasionally; angioedema has also been reported with some angiotensin-II receptor antagonists. Vertigo; less commonly gastro-intestinal disturbances, angina, palpitation, oedema, dyspnoea, headache, sleep disorders, malaise, urticaria, pruritus, rash; rarely hepatitis, atrial fibrillation, cerebrovascular accident, syncope, paraesthesia; also reported pancreatitis, anaphylaxis, cough, depression, erectile dysfunction, anaemia, thrombocytopenia, hyponatraemia, arthralgia, myalgia, renal impairment, rhabdomyolysis, tinnitus, photosensitivity, and vasculitis (including Henoch-Schonlein purpura)
This combination is contraindicated in patients who are hypersensitive to any component of this product. Because of the hydrochlorothiazide component, this product is contraindicated in patients with anuria or hypersensitivity to other sulfonamide-derived drugs.
Angiotensin-II receptor antagonists should be avoided in pregnancy unless essential. They may adversely affect fetal and neonatal blood pressure control and renal function; skull defects and oligohy- dramnios have also been reported.
Information on the use of angiotensin-II receptor antagonists in breast-feeding is limited. They are not recommended in breast-feeding and alternative treatment options, with better established safety information during breast-feeding, are available.
Side-effects see notes above.
Losartan potassium: There is no pharmacokinetic interaction between losartan and hydrochlorothiazide. As like other drugs that block angiotensin II or its effects, concomitant use of potassium-sparing diuretics (e.g., spironolactone, triamterene, amiloride) potassium supplements or salt substitutes containing potassium may lead to increase in serum potassium. Hydrochlorothiazide: When administered concurrently the following drugs may interact with thiazide diuretics: Alcohol, barbiturates or narcotics: potentiation of orthostatic hypotension may occur. Anti-diabetic drugs (oral agents and insulin): dosage adjustment of the anti-diabetic drug may be required. Other antihypertensive drugs: Additive effect or potentiation. Cholestyramine and colestipol resins: Absorption of hydrochlorothiazide is impaired in the presence of anionic exchange resins.
If someone has overdosed and has serious symptoms such as passing out or trouble breathing, call 911. Otherwise, call a poison control center right away. US residents can call their local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. Canada residents can call a provincial poison control center. Symptoms of overdose may include: severe dizziness, fainting.
Store in a cool & dry place, protect from light and moisture.
Keep out of reach of children.
Precon PlusTM 50/12.5 Tablet: Each box contains 5x10 tablets in Alu-Alu blister pack.