PRODUCT DETAILS
Esomeprazole USP

Esomeprazole is a proton pump inhibitor that suppresses gastric acid secretion by specific inhibition of the H+/K+-ATPase, the ‘Proton Pump’ of the gastric parietal cell.

Presentation:

Exium 20: Each capsule contains esomeprazole 20 mg as esomeprazole magnesium USP in enteric coated pellets.
Exium® 40: Each capsule contains esomeprazole 40 mg as esomeprazole magnesium USP in enteric coated pellets.

  Dosage and Administration

Esomeprazole capsules should be swallowed whole and taken one hour before meal. Healing of Erosive Esophagitis: 20 mg or 40 mg Once Daily for 4-8 Weeks. The majority of patients are healed within 4 to 8 weeks. For patients who don’t heal after 4-8 weeks, an additional 4-8 weeks of treatment may be considered. Maintenance of Healing of Erosive Esophagitis: 20 mg Once Daily (Clinical studies did not extend 6 months). Symptomatic GERD: 20 mg Once Daily for 4 Weeks. If symptoms do not resolve completely after 4 weeks, an additional 4 weeks of treatment may be considered. Helicobacter Pylori eradication: Triple Therapy to reduce the risk of Duodenal Ulcer recurrence-Esomeprazole 40 mg Once Daily for 10 days, Amoxicillin 1000 mg Twice Daily for 10 days, Clarithromycin 500 mg Twice Daily for 10 days. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome: The dose is 40 mg twice daily. The dosage should be adjusted individually and treatment continued as long as clinically indicated. Acid related Dyspepsia: 20-4o mg once daily for 2-4 weeks according to response. Duodenal ulcer: 20 mg once daily for 2-4 weeks. Gastric ulcer: 20-40 mg once daily for 4-8 weeks.

  Side Effects

The most frequently occurring adverse events reported with Esomeprazole include headache, diarrhoea, nausea, flatulence, abdominal pain, constipation and dry mouth. There are no difference in types of related adverse events seen during maintenance treatment upto 12 months compared to short term treatment.

  Contraindications

Esomeprazole is contraindicated in-patient with known hypersensitivity to any of the formulation.

  Use in Pregnancy and Lactation

There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Animal studies have revealed no teratogenic effects.

  Drug Interaction

Esomeprazole is extensively metabolized in the liver by CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that Esomeprazole is not likely to inhibit CYPs 1A2, 2A6, 2C9, 2D6, 2E1 and 3A4. No clinically relevant interactions with drugs metabolized by these CYP enzymes would be expected. Drug interaction studies have shown that Esomeprazole does not have any clinically significant interactions with phenytoin, warfarin, quinidine, clarithromycin or amoxicillin.
Esomeprazole may potentially interfere with CYP2C19, the major Esomeprazole metabolizing enzyme. Co-administration of Esomeprazole 30 mg and diazepam, a CYP2C19 substrate has resulted in a 45% decrease in clearance of diazepam. Increased plasma levels of diazepam have been observed 12 hours after dosing and onwards. Esomeprazole inhibits gastric acid secretion. Therefore, Esomeprazole may interfere with the absorption of drugs where gastric pH is an important determinant of bioavailability, ketoconazole, iron salts and digoxin).
Co-administration of oral contraceptives, diazepam, phenytoin, or quinidine do not seem to change the pharmacokinetic profile of Esomeprazole.
Combination Therapy with Clarithromycin Co-administration of esomeprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin has resulted in increases in the plasma levels of esomeprazole and 14-hydroxyclarithromycin.

  Over Dosage

A single oral dose of Esomeprazole at 510 mg/kg (about 103 times the human dose on a body surface area basis), has been lethal to rats. The major signs of acute toxicity are reduced motor activity, changes in respiratory frequency, tremor, ataxia, and intermittent clonic convulsions. There have been no reports of overdose with Esomeprazole.
No specific antidote for Esomeprazole is known. Since Esomeprazole is extensively protein bound, it is not expected to be removed by dialysis. In the event of overdosage, treatment should be symptomatic and supportive. As with the management of any overdose, the possibility of multiple drug ingestion should be considered.

  Storage

Protect from light, Store in dry place.
Keep out of reach of children

  Commercial Pack

Exium® 20 capsule : Each pack contains 60 capsules (10 x 6\\\\\\\'s).
Exium® 40 capsule : Each pack contains 24 capsules (4 x 6\\\\\\\'s).

  Others

Absorption
Esomeprazole capsules contain an enteric-coated pellet formulation of esomeprazole magnesium. After oral administration peak plasma levels (Cmax) occur at approximately 1.5 hours (Tmax). The Cmax increases proportionally when the dose is increased, and there is a three-fold increase in the area under the plasma concentration- time curve (AUC) from 20 to 40 mg. At repeated once daily dosing, the systemic bioavailability is approximately 90% compared to 64% after a single dose. The AUC after administration of a single dose of esomeprazole is decreased by 33-53% after food intake compared to fasting conditions. Esomeprazole should be taken at least one hour before meals.
Distribution:  Esomeprazole is 97% bound to plasma proteins. Plasma protein binding is constant over the concentration range of 2-20 mmol/L. The apparent volume of distribution at steady state in healthy volunteers is approximately 16 L.
Metabolism  Esomeprazole is extensively metabolized in the liver by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme system. The metabolites of esomeprazole lack anti-secretory activity. The major part of esomeprazole’s metabolism is dependent upon the CYP2C19 isoenzyme, which forms the hydroxy and desmethyl metabolites. The remaining amount is dependent on CYP3A4 which forms the sulphone metabolite.
Excretion:  The plasma elimination half-life of esomeprazole is approximately 1–1.5 hours. Less than 1% of parent drug is excreted in the urine. Approximately 80% of an oral dose of esomeprazole is excreted as inactive metabolites in the urine, and the remainder is found as inactive metabolites in the faeces.
Combination Therapy with Antimicrobials:  Esomeprazole magnesium 40 mg once daily is given in combination with clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily and amoxicillin 1000 mg twice daily for 7 days. The mean steady state AUC and Cmax of Esomeprazole increased by 70% and 18%, respectively, during triple combination therapy compared to treatment with Esomeprazole alone.
The pharmacokinetic parameters for clarithromycin and amoxicillin are similar during triple combination therapy and administration of each drug alone. However, the mean AUC and Cmax for 14-hydroxyclarithromycin are increased by 19% and 22%, respectively, during triple combination therapy compared to treatment with clarithromycin alone. This increase in exposure to 14-hydroxyclarithromycin is not considered to be clinically significant.

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